A number of the 779 Guantanamo prisoners came to the prison as children, including these four. (Center for the Study of Human Rights in the Americas/photos)
Fifteen juveniles spent time as prisoners at the Guantánamo Bay detention camp — three more than the U.S. State Department had publicly acknowledged, the UC Davis Center for the Study of Human Rights in the Americas reported today on its website.
The finding is based on an analysis of military documents recently made public by the transparency organization WikiLeaks.
“This new report shows that even more children have been imprisoned at Guantánamo than our earlier research revealed,” said Almerindo Ojeda, director of the center and principal investigators for its Guantanamo Testimonials Project. “This is one more reason for a full, independent, and transparent inquiry into the policies and practices of detention we have engaged in since 9/11.”
A 2008 study by the Guantánamo Testimonials Project found that the U.S. Department of State had underreported by 50 percent the number of juveniles seized and sent to Guantanamo. The State Department subsequently adjusted the number of juvenile detainees from eight to 12.
“This is three more than the 12 the State Department acknowledged to the public after our earlier report on the subject, and seven more than the eight the State Department originally reported to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child,” Ojeda said.
Ojeda and other scholars at UC Davis and beyond, as well as human rights specialists, attorneys and retired military officers, have repeatedly called for investigation into post-9/11 U.S. detention policies and practices. Referred to as the Davis Group — as it was convened by the center and the law school — their 2009 work can be found at http://tinyurl.com/3hb999k.
Thirteen of the one-time juvenile detainees who were identified in the latest WikiLeaks documents have been released. Of the other two, one is the first child in history to have been convicted of war crimes, according to Ojeda. The other is reported to have killed himself in his Guantanamo cell at age 21. Photos of the individuals are also on the website.
WikiLeaks began to release classified documents for all 779 Guantanamo prisoners in April.
The volunteer-staffed Guantánamo Testimonials Project also gathers accounts of torture of Guantánamo Bay prisoners found in news media reports, e-mails, diaries and other sources worldwide. The project has published a book, "The Trauma of Psychological Torture," that contains the proceedings of a September 2006 conference sponsored by the UC Davis Center for Mind and Brain, which drew psychologists, psychiatrists, neurobiologists, lawyers and historians from nine institutions in the U.S. and Germany.
About UC Davis
For more than 100 years, UC Davis has engaged in teaching, research and public service that matter to California and transform the world. Located close to the state capital, UC Davis has more than 32,000 students, more than 2,500 faculty and more than 21,000 staff, an annual research budget that exceeds $678 million, a comprehensive health system and 13 specialized research centers. The university offers interdisciplinary graduate study and more than 100 undergraduate majors in four colleges — Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Biological Sciences, Engineering, and Letters and Science. It also houses six professional schools — Education, Law, Management, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and the Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing.
my moms baggy yellow shirt Mood:
chatty Now Playing: The Yellow Sweatshirt and the story behind it Topic: SMILE SMILE SMILE
The baggy yellow shirt had long sleeves, four extra-large pockets trimmed in black thread and snaps up the front. It was faded from years of wear, but still in decent shape. I found it in 1963 when I was home from college on Christmas break, rummaging through bags of clothes Mom intended to give away. "You're not taking that old thing, are you?" Mom said when she saw me packing the yellow shirt. "I wore that when I was pregnant with your brother in 1954!"
"It's just the thing to wear over my clothes during art class,
Mom. Thanks!" I slipped it into my suitcase before she could object. The yellow shirt be came a part of my college wardrobe. I loved it. After graduation, I wore the shirt the day I moved into my new apartment and on Saturday mornings when I cleaned.
The next year, I married. When I became pregnant, I wore the yellow shirt during big-belly days. I missed Mom and the rest of my family, since we were in Colorado and they were in Illinois. But that shirt helped. I smiled, remembering that Mother had worn it when she was pregnant, 15 years earlier.
That Christmas, mindful of the warm feelings the shirt had given me, I patched one elbow, wrapped it in holiday paper and sent it to Mom. When Mom wrote to thank me for her "real" gifts, she said the yellow shirt was lovely. She never mentioned it again.
The next year, my husband, daughter and I stopped at Mom and Dad's to pick up some furniture. Days later, when we uncrated the kitchen table, I noticed something yellow taped to its bottom. The shirt!
And so the pattern was set.
On our next visit home, I secretly placed the shirt under Mom and Dad's mattress. I don't know how long it took for her to find it, but almost two years passed before I discovered it under the base of our living-room floor lamp. The yellow shirt was just what I needed now while refinishing furniture. The walnut stains added character.
In 1975 my husband and I divorced. With my three children, I prepared to move back to Illinois. As I packed, a deep depression overtook me. I wondered if I could make it on my own. I wondered if I would find a job. I paged through the Bible, looking for comfort. In Ephesians, I read, "So use every piece of God's armor to resist the enemy whenever he attacks, and when it is all over, you will be standing up."
I tried to picture myself wearing God's armor, but all I saw was the stained yellow shirt. Slowly, it dawned on me. Wasn't my mother's love a piece of God's armor? My courage was renewed.
Unpacking in our new home, I knew I had to get the shirt back to Mother. The next time I visited her, I tucked it in her bottom dresser drawer.
Meanwhile, I found a good job at a radio station. A year later I discovered the yellow shirt hidden in a rag bag in my cleaning closet. Something new had been added. Embroidered in bright green across the breast pocket were the words "I BELONG TO PAT."
Not to be outdone, I got out my own embroidery materials and added an apostrophe and seven more letters. Now the shirt proudly proclaimed, "I BELONG TO PAT'S MOTHER." But I didn't stop there. I zig-zagged all the frayed seams, then had a friend mail the shirt in a fancy box to Mom from Arlington, VA. We enclosed an official looking letter from "The Institute for the Destitute," announcing that she was the recipient of an award for good deeds. I would have given anything to see Mom's face when she opened the box. But, of course, she never mentioned it.
Two years later, in 1978, I remarried. The day of our wedding, Harold and I put our car in a friend's garage to avoid practical jokers. After the wedding, while my husband drove us to our honeymoon suite, I reached for a pillow in the car to rest my head. It felt lumpy. I unzipped the case and found, wrapped in wedding paper, the yellow shirt. Inside a pocket was a note: "Read John 14:27-29. I love you both, Mother."
That night I paged through the Bible in a hotel room and found the verses: "I am leaving you with a gift: peace of mind and heart. And the peace I give isn't fragile like the peace the world gives. So don't be troubled or afraid. Remember what I told you: I am going away, but I will come back to you again. If you really love me, you will be very happy for me, for now I can go to the Father, who is greater than I am. I have told you these things before they happen so that when they do, you will believe in me."
The shirt was Mother's final gift. She had known for three months that she had terminal Lou Gehrig's disease. Mother died the following year at age 57.
I was tempted to send the yellow shirt with her to her grave. But I'm glad I didn't, because it is a vivid reminder of the love-filled game she and I played for 16 years. Besides, my older daughter is in college now, majoring in art. And every art student needs a baggy yellow shirt with big pockets.
So is the US nearing the Anti - War tipping point ? Mood:
celebratory Now Playing: The DC location: Freedom Plaza, is on Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., within marching distance of the Capitol and other federal offic Topic: WAR
Demonstrators with the Military Families Speak Out group in an anti-war march to mark the 6,000th death in the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, Tuesday April 26, in Los Angeles. (AP Photo)
With Tahrir Square in mind, activist groups and individuals, some of them well known, are planning ongoing, nonviolent protests in Washington, D.C., starting in October. Their goal is to end the war in Afghanistan and work for sharp change in domestic policies. The mainstream media are not seen as friends, exactly.
A plaza two blocks from the White House is being envisioned as a Tahrir Square or Madison, Wisconsin – a place for ongoing, nonviolent citizen protest – under plans by a coalition of activist organizations and prominent individuals. Their demand: withdrawal of all “U.S. troops, contractors or mercenaries” from Afghanistan.
Organizers have begun an online campaign to solicit endorsements from groups and pledges from at least 50,000 individuals to say they would be willing to come to the nation’s capital beginning Oct. 6 – a Thursday and the 10th anniversary of the start of the war in Afghanistan.
One of the organizers, single-payer healthcare advocate and pediatrician Dr. Margaret Flowers, told Nieman Watchdog that the group hopes for “a sustained occupation of the square beginning on the 6th of October.” The location, Freedom Plaza, is on Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., within marching distance of the Capitol and other federal offices.
“This will not be another rally and march on a Saturday, make home movies, pat ourselves on the back, and go home,” said best-selling author (“War Is a Lie”) and activist David Swanson, another of the organizers. “We are coming to Washington to stay.” Swanson said the organizers would get permits, “but not for the length of time we will probably be there.”
As it expands, Flowers said, the coalition will add to its demands beyond ending the Afghanistan war to include other issues relating to peace, and to social, economic and environmental justice. For now, though, “we are still early in the process and have not worked out our demand process,” she said. “We want broad input into this and to use a decentralized, bottom-up consensus model of decision-making.”
On the first day of the posting for the October action, she said, hundreds of people signed up. The number of organizations endorsing the event stands at 25 as of this writing, with many more expected as these groups go through their endorsement processes.
In announcing the call for the action, organizers said they believed a tipping point has been reached in the American people’s disgust with “the atrocities of U.S. foreign and military policy” and “a U.S. domestic policy that steals from the people to add to the already hideously bursting pockets of the wealthy.” The time is ripe, they said, for a Tahrir Square-style outpouring.
“When the tipping point is reached, it seems at once both unexpected and completely obvious. We are nearing that tipping point in the United States. We have witnessed the Arab Spring and the blossoming of the European Summer. We ask ourselves if now we will experience the American Autumn,” wrote organizers Flowers, Kevin Zeese (head of Come Home America and ItsOurEconomy.us), Tarak Kauff (Veterans for Peace) and Elaine Brower (a military mother and a leader of the antiwar group World Can’t Wait) in announcing the action.
Swanson told Nieman Watchdog he expected the mainstream media to continue to ignore antiwar activities until “we significantly prevent business as usual by nonviolently blocking doors, buildings, offices and streets. Then and only then will we rapidly transition from the ‘first they ignore you stage’, to the ‘then they mock you stage’, to be followed by the ‘then they attack you stage – only if and when some major success appears likely.”
Swanson said he would “be delighted to be proved wrong” about the mainstream media, but he said “the majority positions of Americans on ending wars, taxing corporations and billionaires, providing healthcare and safe retirement, investing in education and jobs and clean energy, and so forth, are routinely ignored and belittled” by major news organizations.
Kevin Zeese echoed Swanson’s critique, indicating activists’ general distrust of major news organizations and increasing reliance on online alternative media to spread and report their message.
“We have so little faith in the corporate media that we did not even emphasize sending an announcement of our plans to them,” Zeese told Nieman Watchdog. “We know they will either ignore or denigrate us, so why bother.”
Major news organizations do indeed ignore antiwar events. It’s understandable that the big media outlets can’t cover every protest, especially in Washington, D.C., where there are so many – but by ignoring antiwar protests almost totally, editors are treating opposition to the war much as they handled the run-up to the war in Iraq: they are missing an important story and contributing to the perception that there is no visible opposition to the Afghanistan war – even as polls show overwhelming support for a U.S. military withdrawal.
Exhibit A: Last Dec. 16, in a demonstration organized by Veterans for Peace, 500 or more people gathered outside the White House, as snow was falling, to protest the war and to support Wikileaks and accused leaker PFC Bradley Manning. There were 131 arrests – including a sizable number of veterans – for nonviolent acts of civil disobedience. One of the arrestees had chained himself to the White House fence and another to a lamppost. Additional newsworthy factors: Among those arrested were the nation’s most famous whistleblower (Daniel Ellsberg); a Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter (Chris Hedges); a much-praised FBI whistleblower (Coleen Rowley); a former CIA analyst who used to prepare daily presidential briefings (Ray McGovern), among others. Additionally, the demonstration seemed newsworthy because it coincided with both the release of the Pentagon’s latest progress report on Afghanistan to President Obama and, as blogger David Lindorff noted, the results of a new ABC/Washington Post poll in which 60 percent of Americans responded that the Afghanistan war had not been “worth fighting.”
Our own research confirmed what Lindorff wrote at the time: “It was blacked out of the New York Times...the Philadelphia Inquirer...the Los Angeles Times..the Wall Street Journal...and even blacked out of the capital’s local daily, the Washington Post.” NPR gave it 143 words, and USA Today 74 words. Using videos and text, the protest – including the arrests, interviews of veterans as to why they were planning to be arrested, as well as excerpts from speeches by participants – was covered by nontraditional media: The Huffington Post , the Socialist Worker, OpEd News, Salem-News.com in Oregon, and...the Sydney (Australia) Morning Herald.
The Washington Post ran a wire service photo of Daniel Ellsberg inside the Metro section with the cutline that he and “several others” were arrested for not dispersing. When some readers complained to Post ombudsman Andrew Alexander about the lack of coverage, he checked with the U.S. Park Service and learned that the 131 arrests was the biggest mass arrest of the year for park police – another newsworthy factor. Alexander allowed as how 131 arrests “warrant more than an inaccurate cutline” but also revealingly stated what would seem to be a common newsroom attitude: “Staged events with mass arrests don’t necessarily have high news value.” As if other large rallies just break out spontaneously without any planning.
“Happily,” Zeese continued, “more and more Americans do not trust the media” and rely instead for news on “independent media sources telling the truth,” detracting from what he called “the corporate media’s credibility.” There is also the possibility that a successful action at Freedom Plaza could attract overseas media attention.
Flowers, a congressional fellow with Physicians for a National Health Program, told Nieman Watchdog that the October nonviolent action is “a very important project in furthering the cause about which I am so passionate – truly universal health care, a single payer health system in the United States, and creating a healthier society and environment.”
Flowers said that even given the “corporate domination of the political process and the media message...Our strength is in our numbers. The majority of people want to end corporate control, end the wars, have single payer health care, better jobs and education, stable climate.” The only chance to achieve this, she said, “is to unite and engage in nonviolent resistance to wrest this corporate control away and create a functional situation.”
The online pledge to attend the Freedom Plaza protest reads, in part: “I pledge that if any U.S. troops, contractors, or mercenaries remain in Afghanistan on Thursday, October 6, 2011, as that criminal occupation goes into its 11th year, I will commit to being in Freedom Plaza in Washington, D.C., with others on that day with the intention of making it our Tahrir Square, our Madison, Wisconsin, where we will nonviolently resist the corporate machine until our resources are invested in human needs and environmental protection instead of war and exploitation...” President Obama has indicated a goal of a 2014 full withdrawal date, if Afghan security forces are ready to take over from U.S. and NATO troops then.
Among the other initial signers in support of the pledge are Cornel West (author and professor of African American studies and religion, Princeton University); radio and television political show host Thom Hartmann; Rabbi Michael Lerner (editor, Tikkun Magazine); Glen Ford (executive editor, Black Agenda Report); former FBI agent and whistleblower Coleen Rowley (a Time magazine co-person-of-the-year in 2002); noted civil rights and civil liberties attorney Bill Quigley; former New York Times war correspondent and Pulitzer Prize winner Chris Hedges; retired colonel, State Department diplomat and activist Ann Wright; Matthew Rothschild (editor, The Progressive magazine); former CIA analyst Ray McGovern; the antiwar group Code Pink cofounder Medea Benjamin; longtime peace activist Kathy Kelly (co-founder, Voices for Creative Nonviolence); military mother Elaine Brower (a leader of the antiwar group World Can’t Wait); and prominent Washington, D.C. activist and religious leader, the Rev. Graylan Hagler (Plymouth Congregational United Church of Christ).
Initial organizations supporting the action include the major antiwar group the ANSWER Coalition, Veterans for Peace, United National Antiwar Committee, Single Payer Action, Code Pink, Voices for Creative Nonviolence, the Green Party, firedoglake, World Can’t Wait, National Campaign for Nonviolent Resistance, Black Agenda Report, War Is A Crime, Network of Spiritual Progressives, Tikkun, and Pax Christi Metro DC-Baltimore, among others.
John Hanrahan is a former executive director of The Fund for Investigative Journalism and reporter for The Washington Post, The Washington Star, UPI, and other news organizations. He is now on special assignment for Nieman Watchdog. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
When George Bush started bailing out corporations and Barack Obama continued we were told that those corporations were too big to fail. The dangers of massive corporations dragging down all of us were noted, they were bailed out, and were they then downsized? Nope. What is up with that?
Fukushima was out of the control of the Japanese government. It was big and the tsunami was bigger. It failed. So, put up your hand if you learned anything from that. Germany? Yes, we see you learned. Japan? We hope so! The US? No hand?
We have just been told today that the economy is tanking again in part because of Fukushima. A Japanese disaster is an American disaster these days. We have 110 nuclear reactors in the US. How many could suffer massive damage like Fukushima before we wreck our economy for many years to come? "Only" four of these plants are in similar earthquake and tsunami zones? Well, what else might surprise us? What if a nuclear power plant gets hit by a massive tornado? Lucky thing there was no nuke in Joplin, Missouri. How many 200 mph trucks flying through the air would it take to breach a reactor? What happens when floods overwhelm a nuke on the Mississippi River? Can't happen? Right. Neither could Fukushima. I've been to the Prairie Island nuclear power plants and on-site storage of massive amounts of high-level nuclear waste. They are smack in the floodplain of the biggest river in North America. The potential exists there to poison that river for generations. All it takes is one bad hand from Mother Nature, one demented terrorist in a small airplane loaded with explosives, one human operator error.
The reality is that nuclear power has always been for too risky, so it cannot exist without government exemption from liability. The risks are just plain stupid.
And, of course, the nuclear executives and p.r. people are quick to claim that it's 70 percent of the emissions-free base load. Well, it's 100 percent of the radioactive baseload. Baseload? Bonneville Power Administration literally cannot even give away electric power right now, the hydro base is so rampant. Shut down the nukes and buy it cheap from BPA! No hydro, wind or solar disasters can come close to a nuclear disaster. Insurance companies will happily handle solar and wind without government shields.
If our economy and our ecology--in the long run, they are the same--are too big to fail we should stop using nuclear power.
The Cure for Plutocracy: Strike! Mood:
loud Now Playing: The Cure for Plutocracy: Strike!by DAVID SWANSON Topic: PROTEST!
·BY DAVID SWANSON: The Cure for Plutocracy: Strike!
The Cure for Plutocracy: Strike!by DAVID SWANSON
The central tool that must be revived is the strike that halts production and imposes a cost on an employer. A strike is not a public relations stunt, but a tool for shifting power from a few people to a great many. The era of the death of labor, the era we have been living in, is the era of the scab or replacement worker. Scabs were uncommon in the 1950s, spotted here and there in the 1960s and 1970s, and widespread from the 1980s forward.
In the absence of understanding the need to truly strike, the labor movement has tried everything else for the past 30 years: pretend strikes for publicity, working to the rule (slowing down in every permitted way), corporate campaigns pressuring employers from various angles, social unionism and coalition building outside of the house of labor, living wage campaigns, and organizing for the sake of organizing. These approaches have all had some defensive successes, but they all appear powerless to turn the ship around.
"[T]he idea that the labor movement can resolve its crisis simply by adding new members -- without a powerful strike in place," writes Burns, "actually constitutes one of the greatest theoretical impediments to union revival." From 1995 to 2008, with unions focused on organizing the unorganized, the U.S. labor movement shrank from 9.4 million to 8.2 million members. The Service Employee International Union (SEIU)'s famous organizing success is in large part the takeover of other unions, that is of people already unionized, and in large part the bribing of politicians (through "campaign contributions" and other pressure) to allow the organizing of public home health-care workers. What's left of the labor movement is, in fact, so concentrated in the public sphere, that unionized workers are being effectively attacked as living off the hard-earned pay of private tax-payers.
The Employee Free Choice Act (EFCA), so much a part of candidate Obama's campaign, and now long forgotten, might not fix anything if passed, in Burns' analysis. To succeed, the labor movement needs the sort of exponential growth it has had at certain moments in the past. Easier organizing alone would not persuade enough workers that joining a union is good for them. But persuading them that joining a union holds immediate advantages for them would revive labor with or without EFCA. And EFCA might make things worse. EFCA tries to legislate the right to quickly create new contracts, to avoid employer stalling. But it does this by subjecting workers to the decisions of arbitrators. Rather than empowering a class of arbitrators, the labor movement we had until 30 years ago would have considered the obvious solution to be empowering workers to compel the creation of contracts through the power of the production-halting strike.
Striking does not require a union or majority support but is itself a tool of organizing and radicalizing, with a minority of leaders moving others to join in what they would not choose to do alone. Solidarity is the process as well as the product of a labor movement. And it is by building strikes with the power to halt entire sectors of the economy, not through bribes and emails and marches, that ordinary people gain power over their so-called representatives in government. "Imagine telling Samuel Gompers or Mother Jones or the Reuther brothers or Jimmy Hoffa that trade unions could exist without a strike. However, in the name of pragmatism," Burns writes, "the 'progressive' trade unionists of today have fit themselves into a decaying structure. On a deeper level, they have abandoned the goal of creating the type of labor movement capable of transforming society."
To turn this around, Burns suggests, we will have to change the way we think about workplaces. According to our courts, a man or woman can work for decades in a business and nonetheless have no legal interest in it, the legal interest belonging entirely to the employer. The employer can move the business to another country without violating a labor contract. The employer can sell out to another employer and eliminate a labor contract in the process. The employer can break a strike with scabs. The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) of 1935 might have looked good on paper, but its interpretation by courts and restriction by other legislation -- notably the Taft Hartley Act of 1947 -- have made clear its weaknesses. Labor has no choice left, Burns argues, but to repeal the NLRA by noncompliance.
Colonists wage and win a guerilla war for American independence from England
1798-1800: The Quasi-War
Along the U.S. Atlantic Coast and the West Indies, an undeclared war with France begins; the U.S. wins 9 of 10 naval encounters.
1801-1805: Tripolitan War
Tripoli (now Libya) declares war on the U.S.; the U.S. responds by blockading and then invading Tripoli.
1811: The "Indian Belt" Affair
Across Indiana and Michigan, U.S. forces, led by Tecumseh defeat Native Americans and burn a city, Prophetstown.
Library of Congress
U.S. Constitution and H.M.S. Java
1812-1815: The War of 1812
The U.S. wars with Great Britain over freedom of the seas, capture of seamen, and a blockade of U.S. ports. Battles were fought in and around Lake Erie; New Orleans, Louisiana; and the nation's capital.
1817-1818: First Seminole War
Following Native American raids in Florida, U.S. forces destroy Seminole villages and break tribal resistance.
1832: Assault on Sumatra
In the first U.S. armed intervention in Asia, the U.S. retaliates against an attack on a U.S. merchant vessel, killing 100 Sumatrans and burning the town of Quallah Battoo, located in what is now Indonesia.
1832: Black Hawk War
In Illinois and Wisconsin, Sac and Fox tribes under Sac leader Black Hawk attack white settlers, but are defeated at the Battle of Bad Axe.
1835-1836: Texas Revolution
Texas settlers revolt against Mexico.
1835-1842: Second Seminole War
In Florida, American troops clash with Native Americans led by Osceola; the Seminole people are reduced to 350 in number by 1842.
1838-1839: Aroostook War
The U.S. fights an undeclared war with England over Maine's boundaries. Approximately 10,000 troops camp along the Aroostook River in a conflict without casualties.
Library of Congress
Recruiting notice for the Mexican War
1846-1848: The Mexican War
The U.S. declares war against Mexico; the war ends with Mexico ceding all rights to Texas, and the U.S. purchase of New Mexico and California.
1847-1850: Cayuse War
In Washington state, Cayuse destroy the intrusive mission of Marcus Whitman, blaming the missionaries for a smallpox outbreak. In addition to Whitman, his wife, and their helpers, 14 Native Americans are killed. The U.S. military forces the Cayuse to surrender and hangs five people.
1855-1858: Third Seminole War
Brigadier General William S. Harney subdues Billy Bowlegs and other Seminole warriors in Florida.
1856: Bleeding Kansas
Conflict erupts in Kansas between pro- and anti-slavery forces, including John Brown; federal troops quell the fighting.
1857-1858: Mormon Expedition
The U.S. Army subdues Mormons who refuse to obey federal law in Utah.
LIbrary of Congress
Civil War Battle Scene
1861-1865: American Civil War
Americans go to war over slavery and the attempted secession of southern states from the United States.
1871: War with Korea
After merchants are killed in Korea, the U.S. kills 250 Koreans in battle; a treaty is secured in 1882.
1871-1876: Apache Wars
Apache leaders Geronimo and Victorio raid white settlers and soldiers in Arizona; Geronimo surrenders in 1886.
Colorado Historical Society
Captain Jack and his followers checking the advance of Union troops in the lava beds
1872-1873: Modoc War
In California and Oregon, U.S. cavalry fight to return the Modoc people and their leader, Kintpuash (known to whites as Captain Jack), to an Oregon reservation; Kintpuash is hanged and the Modoc are exiled to Oklahoma.
1876-1877: Black Hills War
Gold in South Dakota brings in whites to Sioux land. Colonel George A. Custer and 264 soldiers are killed at Little Bighorn; subsequently, the U.S. Army destroys Indian resistance.
Library of Congress
Nez Perce group known as "Chief Joseph's Band", Lapwai, Idaho, spring, 1877
1877: Nez Percé War
Across Idaho, Oregon, and the Washington border, the U.S. moves against the previously peaceful Nez Percé people in the Northwest; Chief Joseph leads a skillful retreat towards Canada, but is caught.
1878: Bannock War
Native Americans of the Bannock tribe attack white settlers in Idaho before they suffer heavy losses and are forced back to Fort Hall Reservation.
1890: Messiah War
The U.S. apprehends Sioux leader Sitting Bull, who is killed when followers try to free him. The Sioux surrender but are massacred at Wounded Knee in South Dakota, in this final fight between Native Americans and the U.S. Army.
U.S. victories against Spain lead to the Treaty of Paris, which establishes the independence of Cuba, and cedes Puerto Rico and Guam to the U.S.. The U.S. also purchases the Philippines for $20 million.
1912: Occupation of Nicaragua
Marines arrive in Nicaragua to bolster the government of Adolfo Diaz; the last marines depart in 1934.
1914: Tampico Affair
After U.S. Marines are arrested at Tampico, U.S. forces bombard Veracruz, Mexico, and occupy the city.
1915: Invasion of Haiti
U.S. Marines occupy Haiti after a civil war; a treaty between the U.S. and the Haitian Senate makes the island nation a virtual U.S. protectorate. Troops withdraw in 1934.
1916-1917: Expedition Against Villa
The U.S. military invades Northern Mexico to capture Mexican Pancho Villa, who had raided New Mexico, killing 18; U.S. forces numbering 11,000 withdraw, unable to capture Villa.
Library of Congress
Corner of the battlefield near Arras
1917-1918: World War I
The U.S. ends three years of neutrality in the European conflict, declaring war on Germany. An armistice is declared November 11, 1918.
1918-1920: Siberian Expedition
The U.S. and other Allied troops invade Russia to protect war supplies during the Russian Revolution.
1927: Protection of Shanghai's International Settlement
One hundred Marines land in Shanghai to defend U.S. property during a civil war there.
Colorado Historical Society
7 GI's at a sandbag bunker in Italy
1941-1945: World War II
The U.S. enters World War II after Japanese planes attack Pearl Harbor in Hawaii; in 1945, Germany and Japan surrender to Allied forces
1950-1953: Korean War
The U.S. battles North Korean soldiers and then Chinese soldiers in Korea before an armistice is signed in 1953.
1955: Defense of Chinese Nationalists
The U.S. 7th Fleet helps Nationalist Chinese evacuate 25,000 troops and 17,000 civilians from China to Taiwan to escape victorious Communist forces.
Vietnam War Internet Project
Soldiers with a prisoner
1955-1973: Vietnam War
In 1955, U.S. advisers are sent to Vietnam; in 1964 Congress authorizes President Lyndon B. Johnson to "repel any armed attack" in the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. A cease-fire is declared in 1973.
1961: Bay of Pigs Invasion
A CIA-backed invasion of Cuba fails.
1962: Anti-Communist Intervention
President John F. Kennedy orders 5,000 troops to Thailand to support the right-wing Laotian government.
1965: Dominican Crisis
Marines invade the Dominican Republic at the start of a civil war; troops withdraw in 1966.
1975: Mayaguez Incident
A U.S. merchant ship is rescued from Cambodians by U.S. Navy and Marines off the coast of Cambodia.
U.S. Marines and Rangers remove U.S. medical students from Grenada.
1986: Operation El Dorado Canyon
U.S. war planes strike Libya in retaliation for the Libyan bombing of a West Berlin disco.
1990-1991: Persian Gulf War
The U.S. leads a multi-nation coalition against Iraq after that country invades Kuwait; Iraq surrenders.
199-1993: Operation Restore Hope
U.S. troops go to Somalia to help restore order and deliver food during a period of unrest and famine.
1994-1995: Operation Uphold Democracy
The U.S. Army sends troops to Haiti in September 1994 to help restore a democratic government.
1994-1995: Bosnian War
The United States bombs Bosnia to prevent "ethnic cleansing" by Serbs in that region and then sends troops to Bosnia to join a NATO peacekeeping force there, as well as in other Balkan areas including Macedonia and Kosovo.
1. FARAH, May. 21 –Mujahideen detonated a remote-controlled roadside bomb on an American tank at 03:00 pm yesterday, instantly killing all 4 invaders onboard in Bakwa’s Ghaziabad area.
2. KANDAHAR, May. 21 – As many as 4 police minions lost their lives in Dand district’s Pazki area when their vehicle was blown to bits by a land mine at around 04:00 pm yesterday.
3. ZABUL, May. 21 – A US Special Forces military convoy travelling on Kabul-Kandahar main highway through Matizo area near Qalat city was hit by land mines, eliminating 2 Land Cruiser 4WD vehicles and killing all invaders inside.
4. KANDAHAR, May. 21 – At around 05:00 pm yesterday in Dand’s Pazki area, 3 police puppets including their commander were killed and 4 others seriously wounded in bombing which destroyed their vehicle.
5. ZABUL, May. 21 – An ebony skinned American terrorist who had come out of his outpost at 07:00 am local time was shot dead by Mujahideen of Islamic Emirate in Shomolzo’s Qala Rasheed area.
6. ZABUL, May. 21 – 5 innocent civilians were detained and taken back to their bases by barbaric US invaders in Shomolzo’s Pie Khelo area after raided their homes last night.
7. ZABUL, May. 21 – A border police vehicle in Shomolzo’s Haji Ajab Khan Nawrhi area was obliterated by an IED at around 05:00 pm yesterday, killing all 4 puppets onboard.
8. ZABUL, May. 21 – As many as 7 police minions lost their lives or were severely wounded when their vehicle was annihilated by an IED in Nawrak area located near Qalat city at 09:00 am this morning.
9. KABUL, May 21 – As many as 51 military doctors and other officials of the NATO and local puppets got killed and dozens more were wounded on Saturday noon local time in twin martyr attacks that rocked the Charsad Bestar (400-bed) hospital, the largest military hospital in the country located in the heart of Kabul city, the capital of the country, Zabihullah Mujahid, the spokesman for Al-Emarah reported from.
Both Mujahids have embraced martyrdom with an interval of an hour after fighting bravely in the military section of the hospital before detonating their explosivs belts, Mujahid added.
10. HELMAND, May. 21 – At least 2 US invaders were killed and 3 fatally wounded in an IED attack on their foot patrol in Nad Ali’s Si Waik Gharbi area at 02:00 pm yesterday while walking in front of their outpost.
11. FARYAB, May. 21 – An ISAF tank in Khwaja Namusa district’s Ghra Taifa area was destroyed earlier this morning by a land mine, killing 2 invaders and seriously wounding 3 others onboard.
12. HELMAND, May. 21 – Heavy fighting is taking place in Nawa district since earlier this afternoon when Mujahideen of Islamic Emirate, as part of operation ‘Badar’ carried out an armed assault on the invaders outposts located in Tangano Godar area.
13. KANDAHAR, May. 21 – Mujahideen of Islamic Emirate from Zhiri district say that the US tank, which the invaders used to park in Sarkili area to ambush Mujahideen everyday, was shot this afternoon by 82mm canon round, destroying the tank and killing all enemy personnel inside.
14. ZABUL, May. 21 – An anti-tank mine planted by Mujahideen on the main road to Shomolzo near Shinki district center tore through an American armored tank at 09:00 am this morning, killing and wounding all invaders inside.
15. HELMAND, May. 21 – Latest reports arriving about the Helmand offensive which carried out by Mujahideen of Islamic Emirate in the entire district 2 days earlier as a part of ‘Operation Badar’ say that those 20 missiles which slammed into Shurab airfield, considered as the enemies largest base in the province had destroyed 6 US helicopters after hitting their shelter besides causing the enemy deadly casualties.
My Voice Doesn't Count "The Job Review" Mood:
sad Now Playing: Carolyn Gregory's Poem on work and competencies Topic: ANYBODY * ANYDAY
The Job Review
Like a boil, my worry popped this morning when the managers took me in and updated my review : Competencies unmet. . .my sins too grievous to mention for polite folk, my hands sweaty, folded in my lap, incapable of prayer.When I woke today, Louis Armstrong sang Nobody knows the trouble I’ve seen, Nobody knows my sorrow. . . In my mind’s eye, New Orleans floated by on a bloody mattress.Once again, I’ve failed. Too tall, too left-handed, too disorganized, et cetera. It’s time for another public whipping –Bind my wrists, shoot little flaming arrows into my flesh and shut the door on my grievances. . .In the bigger scheme, my voice doesn’t count, just the ability to say Yes Sir, Yes Ma’am, type up a storm of spreadsheets and prop up a sagging floor plan.
A sales rep calls from Perceptive as someone pages Dr. Ivan Ho overhead. The transport gurney wheels patients for IV lines and contrasts of arteries and veins. Everywhere, there are screens full of ultrasounds.
In Radiology, it’s a regular archaeological dig! Phone calls fly on little wings, doctors analyze 3D films of abdomens, scanned for disaster.
Invisible, I sit behind my bunker shield, ducking facts and personalities. A doctor says 6,000 veins a week get billed. Another’s lost his pocket scheduler, cursing in Spanish. Another dictates upper case AORTA, upper case ANEURYSM. His report goes into the talk station.
My day is most peculiar and surreal. A nurse thanks me for being kind though I sounded gruff. Dr. S talks about the Ivory Tower to a pretty clerk smiling like Snow White as she counts down to lunch.
Current Occupation: Free lance classical music and theatre arts reviewer for STYLUS and community activist Former Occupation: Academic hospital administrator and grant writer Contact Information: Carolyn Gregory has published poems and music/theatre reviews in American Poetry Review, Seattle Review, Bellowing Ark, Main Street Rag, Wilderness House Literary Review and STYLUS. Her full length book, Open Letters, was published in Boston in 2009 and her next book, Scenario, is due for publication this year.
There are two conspiracy theories of what happened on 9-11. The government side has been told by the Bush and Obama administrations and by all five Democrats and all five Republicans on the 911 Commission as well as the corporate news media. Their version is well known.
But there is an unanswered question. How did the 19 Arab hijackers get on board those planes? The list of the 19 men was conveniently found in a parked car. Not one of those 19 men was a passenger. Not even one had a ticket. Not even one had a boarding pass. Nor were any of the 19 men members of the flight crews.
All airlines have employees who will lose their jobs if they let men without tickets and boarding passes on to an airplane. To imagine that 19 men achieved this feat on 9-11 without one airline employee being fired is unbelievable.
It is true that there was a photo of Mohamed Atta at an airport in Portland Maine, but there were no surveillance videos of any of the 19 men on 9-11-2001. So the question is: How did the 19 men hijack four planes if not even one of the men were on board?
I sincerely believe that the list of passengers and crew members below should be considered as the first casualties of World War III. We dishonor them if we do nothing to protect others from the madmen who plan wars in which people like us are expected to die.
An alternative theory of 9-11 is that the four planes were electronically hijacked by what is know as the Command Transmitter System (CTS) which is made by SPC International whose CEO had been Rabbi Dov Zakheim in the 1990s. CTS can remotely control up to eight planes at once. Rabbi Zakheim, who was a member of the Project for a New American Century along with Richard Perle and Dick Cheney, was the Comptroller of the Pentagon on 9-11.
On 9-10-2001 Donald Rumsfeld admitted at a press conference that 2.3 trillion dollars in Pentagon money from the previous Clinton and Bush administrations was missing, On 9-11 a bomb was detonated inside the Pentagon that killed over forty military auditors who had been attempting to track down those missing trillions.
Among the witnesses to that bomb was Robert Andrews, a former Green Beret who was the Acting Assistant Secretary of the DOD in charge of America's 25,000 Special Operations soldiers. There were other witnesses including two military personnel with top secret clearances and a Danish diplomat. Unfortunately, I do not have a separate list of the military and civilian auditors who died that day.
With all respect to those who died on 9-11 and to those who were killed in Iraq and Afghanistan I submit the following list of those who died as a sacrifice to the games played by The Powers That Be.
We will never forget those who were the first civilian victims of World War III.
AMERICAN AIRLINES FLIGHT 11 American Airlines Flight 11, from Boston, Massachusetts, to Los Angeles, California, crashed into the north tower of the World Trade Center with 92 people on board. CREW John Ogonowski, 52, of Dracut, Massachusetts, was the pilot of Flight 11. He lived on a 150-acre farm north of Boston. He is survived by his wife, Margaret, and three daughters, Laura, 16; Caroline, 14; and Mary, 11. A lifelong aviation buff, he joined the Air Force after graduating from college and flew planes at the close of the Vietnam War. He joined American Airlines in 1979. First Officer Thomas McGuinness, 42, of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, was Flight 11′s co-pilot. He is survived by his wife, Cheryl, and a 14-year-old son and 16-year-old daughter. He was active in Bethany Church in Greenland, New Hampshire, friends and neighbors told The Boston Globe. Rick DeKoven, a church administrator, described him as "a devoted family man." Barbara Arestegui, 38, was a flight attendant from Marstons Mills, Massachusetts. Jeffrey Collman was a flight attendant. Sara Low, 28, was a flight attendant from Batesville, Arkansas. Karen Martin was a flight attendant. Kathleen Nicosia was a flight attendant. Betty Ong, 45, was a flight attendant from Andover, Massachusetts. Jean Roger, 24, was a flight attendant from Longmeadow, Massachusetts. Dianne Snyder, 42, was a flight attendant from Westport, Massachusetts. Madeline Sweeney, 35, was a flight attendant from Acton, Massachusetts.
PASSENGERS Anna Williams Allison, 48, of Stoneham, Massachusetts, was the founder of A2 Software Solutions, a firm that assists companies in software development. Allison had more than 19 years' experience in the software development industry and was a frequent speaker and trainer at national and local conferences. David Angell, 54, of Pasadena, California, was the creator and executive producer of the hit NBC sitcom "Frasier." A native of West Barrington, Rhode Island, Angell entered the Army after graduating from college and served at the Pentagon until 1972. He worked in insurance and engineering before selling a script for a TV series in 1977. In 1983, he joined the TV series "Cheers" as a staff writer and began working with co-supervising producers Peter Casey and David Lee. This team formed a production company, creating and producing "Wings" in 1990 and "Frasier" in 1993. The trio won 24 Emmys. Lynn Angell, 45, of Pasadena, California, was the wife of "Frasier" creator and executive producer David Angell. The Angells were returning from a wedding on the East Coast to attend the Emmy Awards. Seima Aoyama Myra Aronson, 52, of Charlestown, Massachusetts, was a press and analyst relations manager for Compuware Corp. Christine Barbuto, 32, of Brookline, Massachusetts, was a buyer for TJX Cos., the off-price retailer of apparel and home fashions. She was on her way to California on a buying trip. Barbuto is survived her father and two sisters. She had worked for TJX for five years. Berry Berenson, 53, of Los Angeles, California, was an actress and photographer. She was the widow of actor Anthony Perkins, who died in 1992, and sister of actress and model Marisa Berenson. She is survived by two sons, Osgood, an actor, and Elvis. Born into an aristocratic family, Berenson appeared in the movies "Cat People" (1982), "Winter Kills" (1979) and "Remember My Name" (1978). Carolyn Beug, 48, of Los Angeles, California, was traveling with her mother, Mary Wahlstrom. They had gone to Boston to drop off relatives at a nearby college and were returning home. Carol Bouchard, 43, of Warwick, Rhode Island, was a Kent County Hospital emergency room secretary. Robin Caplin was from Natick, Massachusetts. Neilie Casey, 32, of Wellesley, Massachusetts, was a merchandise planning manager for TJX Cos., the off-price retailer of apparel and home fashions. She worked for TJX for eight years. Casey is survived by her husband and a 7-month-old daughter. Jeffrey Coombs, 42, of Abington, Massachusetts, was a security analyst for Compaq Computer. He is survived by his wife, Christie, and three children, Meagan, 10; Julia, 7; and Matt, 12. Tara Creamer, 30, of Worcester, Massachusetts, was a merchandise planning manager for TJX Cos., the off-price retailer of apparel and home fashions. She had worked for TJX for eight years. Creamer is survived by her husband, John, and two children, Colin, 4, and Nora, 1. Thelma Cuccinello, 71, was a Wilmot, New Hampshire, resident with 10 grandchildren. She was on her way to visit a sister in California. Daughter Cheryl O'Brien gave her mom a ride to catch a bus to Logan International Airport in Boston. "I was the last one to see her," O'Brien said. "I got to kiss her and say 'I love you' and 'Have a nice trip.' " Patrick Currivan Andrew Curry Green was from Chelmsford, Massachusetts. Brian Dale, 43, of Warren, New Jersey, was an accountant and attorney with Blue Capital Management. He was married and the father of three. David DiMeglio was from Wakefield, Massachusetts. Donald Ditullio, 49, was from Peabody, Massachusetts. Albert Dominguez, 66, was a baggage handler for Qantas Airways in Sydney, Australia. He was traveling on holiday at the time of his death. He was married with four children. Alex Filipov, 70, was an electrical engineer from Concord, Massachusetts. Carol Flyzik, 40, was from Plaistow, New Hampshire. Paul Friedman, 45, from Belmont, Massachusetts, was a consultant for Emergence Consulting. Karleton D.B. Fyfe, 31, of Brookline, Massachusetts, was a senior investment analyst for John Hancock. Peter Gay, 54, of Tewksbury, Massachusetts, was a Raytheon Co. vice president of operations for electronic systems based in Andover, Massachusetts. He had worked for Raytheon for more than 28 years. Linda George, 27, of Westboro, Massachusetts, was a buyer for TJX Cos., the off-price retailer of apparel and home fashions. She was on her way to California on a buying trip. George is survived by her father, mother, sister and brother. She was engaged to be married. Edmund Glazer, 41, of Los Angeles, California, was the chief financial officer and vice president of finance and administration of MRV Communications, a Chatsworth, California, firm that focuses on optical components and network infrastructure systems. Glazer was survived by his wife, Candy, and son, Nathan. Lisa Fenn Gordenstein, 41, of Needham, Massachusetts, was an assistant vice president, merchandise manager, for TJX Cos., the off-price retailer of apparel and home fashions. She was on her way to California on a buying trip. Gordenstein is survived by her husband and two children. Paige Farley Hackel, 46, was a spiritual adviser from Newton, Massachusetts. Peter Hashem, 40, was an engineer from Tewksbury, Massachusetts. Robert Hayes, 37, from Amesbury, Massachusetts was a sales engineer with Netstal. Ted Hennessy, 35, was a consultant for Emergence Consulting in Belmont, Massachusetts. John Hofer Cora Holland, 52, of Sudbury, Massachusetts, was with Sudbury Food Pantry, an interdenominational program that assisted needy families, at Our Lady of Fatima Church. Nicholas Humber, 60, of Newton, Massachusetts, was the owner of Brae Burn Management. John Jenkins Charles Jones, 48, was a computer programmer from Bedford, Massachusetts. Robin Kaplan, 33, of Westboro, Massachusetts, was a senior store equipment specialist for TJX Cos., the off-price retailer of apparel and home fashions. She was on her way to California to help prepare for a new T.J. Maxx store opening. Kaplan had returned to work this year after battling Crohn's disease, a life-threatening inflammatory illness of the gastrointestinal tract. She is survived by her father, Edward Kaplan, and mother, Francine. Barbara Keating, 72, was from Palm Springs, California. David Kovalcin, 42, of Hudson, New Hampshire, was a Raytheon Co. senior mechanical engineer for electronic systems in Tewksbury, Massachusetts. He had worked for Raytheon for 15 years. Judy Larocque, 50, of Framingham, Massachusetts, was the founder and CEO of Market Perspectives, a research firm that offers online and on-site surveys. Before founding the company in 1993, she was the principal of Emergent Marketing, an executive marketing consulting firm. Jude Larson, 31, was from Los Angeles, California. Natalie Larson was from Los Angeles, California. N. Janis Lasden, 46, of General Electric was from Peabody, Massachusetts. Daniel John Lee, 34, was from Los Angeles, California. Daniel C. Lewin, 31, was the co-founder and chief technology officer at Akamai Technologies Inc., a Cambridge, Massachusetts, company that produces technology equipment to facilitate online content delivery. He is survived by his wife and two sons. He founded Akamai in 1998 with scientist Tom Leighton and a group of Massachusetts Institute of Technology scientists and business professionals. Lewin was responsible for the company's research and development strategy. Susan MacKay, 44, of Westford, Massachusetts, was an employee of TJX Cos., the off-price retailer of apparel and home fashions. Chris Mello, 25, was a financial analyst with Alta Communications from Boston. He graduated from Princeton University with a degree in psychology. He is survived by his parents, Douglas and Ellen Mello of Rye, New York; a brother, John Douglas Mello of New York City; and his paternal grandmother, Alice Mello, of Barefoot Bay, Florida. Jeff Mladenik, 43, of Hinsdale, Illinois, was the interim president at E-Logic. Antonio Montoya Carlos Montoya Laura Lee Morabito, 34, was the Qantas Airways area sales manager in Boston. She lived in Framingham, Massachusetts, with her husband. She was traveling on company business at the time of her death. Mildred Naiman was from Andover, Massachusetts. Laurie Neira Renee Newell, 37, of Cranston, Rhode Island, was a customer service agent with American Airlines. Jacqueline Norton, 60, was a retiree from Lubec, Maine. She was traveling with her husband, Robert Norton. Robert Norton, 82, was a retiree from Lubec, Maine. He was traveling with his wife, Jacqueline Norton. Jane Orth, 49, of Haverhill, Massachusetts, was retired from Lucent Technology. Thomas Pecorelli, 31, of Los Angeles, California, was a cameraman for Fox Sports and E! Entertainment Television. Sonia Morales Puopolo, 58, of Dover, Massachusetts, was a retired ballet dancer. David Retik was from Needham, Massachusetts. He was a general partner and founding member of Alta Communications, a Boston-based investment firm specializing in communication industries. Retik graduated from Colgate University and received a master's in accounting from New York University. He is survived by his wife, Susan and their two children, Ben and Molly. Philip Rosenzweig of Acton, Massachusetts, was an executive with Sun Microsystems. Richard Ross, 58, of Newton, Massachusetts, headed his own management consulting company, the Ross Group. Jessica Sachs, 22, of Billerica, Massachusetts was an accountant with PricewaterhouseCoopers. Rahma Salie, 28, was from Boston. Heather Smith, 30, of Beacon Capital Partners was from Boston. Douglas Stone, 54, was from Dover, New Hampshire. Xavier Suarez Michael Theodoridis, 32, was a consultant from Boston. James Trentini, 65, was a retired teacher and assistant principal from Everett, Massachusetts. Mary Trentini, 67, was a retired secretary from Everett, Massachusetts. Mary Wahlstrom, 75, of Kaysville, Utah, was traveling with her daughter, Carolyn Beug. They had gone to Boston to drop off relatives at a nearby college and were returning home. Kenneth Waldie, 46, of Methuen, Massachusetts, was a Raytheon Co. senior quality control engineer for electronic systems in Tewksbury, Massachusetts. He had worked for Raytheon for 17 years. John Wenckus, 46, was a tax consultant from Torrance, California. Candace Lee Williams, 20, was a student from Danbury, Connecticut. Christopher Zarba, 47, of Hopkinton, Massachusetts, was a software engineer at Concord Communications. He leaves behind a wife and family. He would have been 48 on September 15. The Associated Press contributed to this report.
AMERICAN AIRLINES FLIGHT 77 American Airlines Flight 77, from Washington to Los Angeles, crashed into the Pentagon with 64 people aboard.
CREW Charles Burlingame of Herndon, Virginia, was the plane's captain. He is survived by a wife, a daughter and a grandson. He had more than 20 years of experience flying with American Airlines and was a former U.S. Navy pilot. David Charlebois, who lived in Washington's Dupont Circle neighborhood, was the first officer on the flight. "He was handsome and happy and very centered," his neighbor Travis White, told The Washington Post. "His life was the kind of life I wanted to have some day." Michele Heidenberger of Chevy Chase, Maryland, was a flight attendant for 30 years. She left behind a husband, a pilot, and a daughter and son. Flight attendant Jennifer Lewis, 38, of Culpeper, Virginia, was the wife of flight attendant Kenneth Lewis. Flight attendant Kenneth Lewis, 49, of Culpeper, Virginia, was the husband of flight attendant Jennifer Lewis. Renee May, 39, of Baltimore, Maryland, was a flight attendant.
PASSENGERS Paul Ambrose, 32, of Washington, was a physician who worked with the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the surgeon general to address racial and ethnic disparities in health. A 1995 graduate of Marshall University School of Medicine, Ambrose last year was named the Luther Terry Fellow of the Association of Teachers of Preventative Medicine. Yeneneh Betru, 35, was from Burbank, California. M.J. Booth Bernard Brown, 11, was a student at Leckie Elementary School in Washington. He was embarking on an educational trip to the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary near Santa Barbara, California, as part of a program funded by the National Geographic Society. Suzanne Calley, 42, of San Martin, California, was an employee of Cisco Systems Inc. William Caswell Sarah Clark, 65, of Columbia, Maryland, was a sixth-grade teacher at Backus Middle School in Washington. She was accompanying a student on an educational trip to the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary near Santa Barbara, California, as part of a program funded by the National Geographic Society. Asia Cottom, 11, was a student at Backus Middle School in Washington. Asia was embarking on an educational trip to the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary near Santa Barbara, California, as part of a program funded by the National Geographic Society. James Debeuneure, 58, of Upper Marlboro, Maryland, was a fifth-grade teacher at Ketcham Elementary School in Washington. He was accompanying a student on an educational trip to the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary near Santa Barbara, California, as part of a program funded by the National Geographic Society. Rodney Dickens, 11, was a student at Leckie Elementary School in Washington. He was embarking on an educational trip to the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary near Santa Barbara, California, as part of a program funded by the National Geographic Society. Eddie Dillard Charles Droz Barbara Edwards, 58, of Las Vegas, Nevada, was a teacher at Palo Verde High School in Las Vegas. Charles S. Falkenberg, 45, of University Park, Maryland, was the director of research at ECOlogic Corp., a software engineering firm. He worked on data systems for NASA and also developed data systems for the study of global and regional environmental issues. Falkenburg was traveling with his wife, Leslie Whittingham, and their two daughters, Zoe, 8, and Dana, 3. Zoe Falkenberg, 8, of University Park, Maryland, was the daughter of Charles Falkenberg and Leslie Whittingham. Dana Falkenberg, 3, of University Park, Maryland, was the daughter of Charles Falkenberg and Leslie Whittingham. Joe Ferguson was the director of the National Geographic Society's geography education outreach program in Washington. He was accompanying a group of students and teachers on an educational trip to the Channel Islands in California. A Mississippi native, he joined the society in 1987. "Joe Feguson's final hours at the Geographic reveal the depth of his commitment to one of the things he really loved," said John Fahey Jr., the society's president. "Joe was here at the office until late Monday evening preparing for this trip. It was his goal to make this trip perfect in every way." Wilson "Bud" Flagg of Millwood, Virginia, was a retired Navy admiral and retired American Airlines pilot. Dee Flagg Richard Gabriel Ian Gray, 55, of Washington was the president of a health-care consulting firm. Stanley Hall, 68, was from Rancho Palos Verdes, California. Bryan Jack, 48, of Alexandria, Virginia, was a senior executive at the Defense Department. Steven D. "Jake" Jacoby, 43, of Alexandria, Virginia, was the chief operating officer of Metrocall Inc., a wireless data and messaging company. Ann Judge, 49, of Virginia was the travel office manager for the National Geographic Society. She was accompanying a group of students and teachers on an educational trip to the Channel Islands in California. Society President John Fahey Jr. said one of his fondest memories of Judge is a voice mail she and a colleague once left him while they were rafting the Monkey River in Belize. "This was quintessential Ann — living life to the fullest and wanting to share it with others," he said. Chandler Keller, 29, was a Boeing propulsion engineer from El Segundo, California. Yvonne Kennedy Norma Khan, 45, from Reston, Virginia was a nonprofit organization manager. Karen A. Kincaid, 40, was a lawyer with the Washington firm of Wiley Rein & Fielding. She joined the firm in 1993 and was part of the its telecommunications practice. She was married to Peter Batacan. Norma Langsteuerle Dong Lee Dora Menchaca, 45, of Santa Monica, California, was the associate director of clinical research for a biotech firm. Christopher Newton, 38, of Anaheim, California, was president and chief executive officer of Work-Life Benefits, a consultation and referral service. He was married and had two children. Newton was on his way back to Orange County to retrieve his family's yellow Labrador, who had been left behind until they could settle into their new home in Arlington, Virginia. Barbara Olson, 45, was a conservative commentator who often appeared on CNN and was married to U.S. Solicitor General Theodore Olson. She twice called her husband as the plane was being hijacked and described some details, including that the attackers were armed with knives. She had planned to take a different flight, but she changed it at the last minute so that she could be with her husband on his birthday. She worked as an investigator for the House Government Reform Committee in the mid-1990s and later worked on the staff of Senate Minority Whip Don Nickles. Ruben Ornedo, 39, of Los Angeles, California, was a Boeing propulsion engineer. Robert Penniger, 63, of Poway, California, was an electrical engineer with BAE Systems. Lisa Raines, 42, was senior vice president for government relations at the Washington office of Genzyme, a biotechnology firm. She was from Great Falls, Virginia, and was married to Stephen Push. She worked with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on developing a new policy governing cellular therapies, announced in 1997. She also worked on other major health-care legislation. Todd Reuben, 40, of Potomac, Maryland, was a tax and business lawyer. John Sammartino Diane Simmons George Simmons Mari-Rae Sopper of Santa Barbara, California, was a women's gymnastics coach at the University of California at Santa Barbara. She had just gotten the post August 31 and was making the trip to California to start work. Bob Speisman, 47, was from Irvington, New York. Hilda Taylor was a sixth-grade teacher at Leckie Elementary School in Washington. She was accompanying a student on an educational trip to the Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary near Santa Barbara, California, as part of a program funded by the National Geographic Society. Leonard Taylor was from Reston, Virginia. Leslie A. Whittington, 45, was from University Park, Maryland. The professor of public policy at Georgetown University in Washington was traveling with her husband, Charles Falkenberg, 45, and their two daughters, Zoe, 8, and Dana, 3. They were traveling to Los Angeles to catch a connection to Australia. Whittington had been named a visiting fellow at Australian National University in Canberra. John Yamnicky, 71, was from Waldorf, Maryland. Vicki Yancey Shuyin Yang Yuguag Zheng The Associated Press contributed to this report.
UNITED AIRLINES FLIGHT 93 United Airlines Flight 93, from Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco, California, crashed in rural southwest Pennsylvania, with 45 people on board.
CREW Jason Dahl, 43, from Denver, Colorado, was the plane's captain. He had a wife and son. Dahl had a lifelong interest in flying, said his aunt, Maxine Atkinson, of Waterloo, Iowa. Leroy Homer, 36, from Marlton, New Jersey, was the first officer on board. He was married and had a daughter. Lorraine Bay was a flight attendant. Sandra Bradshaw, 38, of Greensboro, North Carolina, was a flight attendant. Wanda Green was a flight attendant. CeeCee Lyles of Fort Myers, Florida, was a flight attendant. She reached her husband, Lorne, by cell phone to tell him that she loved him and their children before the plane went down. The couple between them had four children. Deborah Welsh was a flight attendant. PASSENGERS Christian Adams Todd Beamer, 32, was from Cranbury, New Jersey. Alan Beaven, 48, of Oakland, California, was an environmental lawyer. Mark Bingham, 31, of San Francisco owned a public relations firm, the Bingham Group. He called his mother, Alice Hoglan, 15 minutes before the plane crashed and told her that the plane had been taken over by three men who claimed to have a bomb. Hoglan said her son told her that some passengers planned to try to regain control of the plane. "He said, 'I love you very, very much, ' " Hoglan said. Deora Bodley, 20, of Santa Clara, California, was a university student. Marion Britton Thomas E. Burnett Jr., 38, of San Ramon, California, was a senior vice president and chief operating officer of Thoratec Corp., a medical research and development company, and the father of three. He made four calls to his wife, Deena, from the plane. Deena Burnett said that her husband told her that one passenger had been stabbed and that "a group of us are going to do something." He also told her that the people on board knew about the attack on the World Trade Center, apparently through other phone calls. William Cashman Georgine Corrigan Joseph Deluca Patrick Driscoll Edward Felt, 41, was from Matawan, New Jersey. Colleen Fraser Andrew Garcia Jeremy Glick, 31, from West Milford, New Jersey, called his wife, Liz, and in-laws in New York on a cell phone to tell them the plane had been hijacked, Joanne Makely, Glick's mother-in-law, told CNN. Glick said that one of the hijackers "had a red box he said was a bomb, and one had a knife of some nature," Makely said. Glick asked Makely if the reports about the attacks on the World Trade Center were true, and she told him they were. He left the phone for a while, returning to say, "The men voted to attack the terrorists," Makely said. Lauren Grandcolas of San Rafael, California, was a sales worker at Good Housekeeping magazine. Donald F. Green, 52, was from Greenwich, Connecticut. Linda Gronlund Richard Guadagno, 38, of Eureka, California, was the manager of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Toshiya Kuge Waleska Martinez Nicole Miller Mark Rothenberg Christine Snyder, 32, was from Kailua, Hawaii. She was an arborist for the Outdoor Circle and was returning from a conference in Washington. She had been married less than a year. John Talignani Honor Wainio
UNITED AIRLINES FLIGHT 175 United Airlines Flight 175, from Boston, Massachusetts, to Los Angeles, California, was the second hijacked plane to strike the World Trade Center, plowing into the south tower. Two pilots, seven flight attendants and 56 passengers were on board.
CREW Capt. Victor Saracini, 51, of Lower Makefield Township, Pennsylvania, was a Navy veteran. He is survived by his wife and two children. Michael Horrocks was first officer. Robert J. Fangman was a flight attendant. Amy N. Jarret, 28, of North Smithfield, Rhode Island, was a flight attendant. Amy R. King was a flight attendant. Kathryn L. Laborie was a flight attendant. Alfred G. Marchand of Alamogordo, New Mexico, was a flight attendant. Michael C. Tarrou was a flight attendant. Alicia N. Titus was a flight atteandant.
PASSENGERS Alona Avraham, 30, was from Ashdot, Israel. Garnet "Ace" Bailey, 53, of Lynnfield, Massachusetts, was director of pro scouting for the Los Angeles Kings hockey team. Bailey was entering his 33rd season as a player or scout in the National Hockey League and his eighth with the Kings. Before joining the Kings, he spent 13 years as a scout for the Edmonton Oilers, a team that won five Stanley Cups during that time. As a player, Bailey spent five years with the Boston Bruins and was a member of Stanley Cup championship teams in 1969-70 and 1971-72. Bailey also spent parts of two seasons each with the Detroit Red Wings and St. Louis Blues, and three years with the Washington Capitals. He is survived by his wife, Katherine, and son, Todd. Mark Bavis, 31, of West Newton, Massachusetts, was entering his second season as an amateur scout for the Los Angeles Kings. A Boston native, he played four years on Boston University's hockey team, where his twin brother, Michael, is an assistant coach. In addition to his twin brother, Bavis is survived by his mother, Mary; two other brothers, Pat and Johnny; and three sisters, Kelly, Mary Ellen and Kathy. The Bavis family lost a brother 15 years ago, and Bavis' father died 10 years ago. Graham Berkeley, 37, of Xerox Corp. was from Wellesley, Massachusetts. Touri Bolourchi, 69, was from Beverly Hills, California. Klaus Bothe, 31, of Germany was on a business trip with BCT Technology AG's chief executive officer and another executive. Bothe joined the company in 1994 and was its director of development. He is survived by his wife and one child. Daniel Brandhorst, of Los Angeles, California, was a lawyer for PriceWaterhouse. David Brandhorst, 3, was from Los Angeles. John Cahill was from Wellesley, Massachusetts. Christoffer Carstanjen, 33, of Turner Falls, Massachusetts, was staff assistant in the office of information technology at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst. John Corcoran "Jay" Corcoran, 44, of Norwell, Massachusetts, was a merchant marine. Dorothy Dearaujo, 82, was from Long Beach, California. Gloria Debarrera Lisa Frost, 22, of Rancho Santa Margarita, California, graduated from Boston University this year, with degrees in communications and business hospitality. She is survived by her father, mother and brother. Ronald Gamboa, 33, of Los Angeles, California, was a Gap store manager. Lynn Goodchild, 25, was from Attleboro, Massachusetts. The Rev. Francis E. Grogan, 76, of Easton, Massachusetts, was a priest at Holy Cross Church in Easton. A veteran of World War II, Grogan served as a parish priest, a chaplain and teacher at Holy Cross schools. Carl Hammond, 37, was from Boston, Massachusetts. Peter Hanson, 32, of Groton, Massachusetts, was a software salesman. Susan Hanson, 35, of Groton, Massachusetts, was a student. Christine Hanson, 3, was from Groton, Massachusetts. Gerald Hardacre Eric Hartono James E. Hayden, 47, of Westford, Massachusetts, was the chief financial officer of Netegrity Inc. Hayden is survived by his wife, Gail, and their two children. Herbert Homer,48, of Milford, Massachusetts, worked for Raytheon Co. Robert Jalbert, 61, of Swampscott, Massachusetts, was a salesman. Ralph Kershaw, 52, of Manchester-by-the-Sea, Massachusetts, was a marine surveyor. Heinrich Kimmig, 43, chairman and chief executive officer of BCT Technology Ag, of Germany was on a business trip involving contract negotiations with U.S. partners along with two other BCT execs, the company said in a statement. Kimmig studied mechanical engineering in college. After an internship, he became the design manager at Badische Stahl Engineering, and shortly after, he founded BSE Computer-Technologie GmbH, originally a locally operating software company. In 1999, this company became BCT Technology AG. Kimmig is survived by his wife and two children. Brian Kinney, 29, of Lowell, Massachusetts, was an auditor for PriceWaterhouse Cooper. Robert LeBlanc, 70, of Lee, New Hampshire, was a professor emeritus of geography at the University of New Hampshire. After earning his doctorate at the University of Minnesota, LeBlanc joined the University of New Hampshire's faculty in 1963 as a cultural geographer. With a specialty in Canadian studies, he looked at the Franco-American communities in New England's mill towns. He was acting chair and chair of the geography department for nearly 10 years, retiring in 1999. Maclovio "Joe" Lopez Jr., 41, was from Norwalk, California. Marianne MacFarlane Louis Neil Mariani, 59, was from Derry, New Hampshire. Juliana Valentine McCourt, 4, was from New London, Connecticut. Ruth McCourt, 24, was from Westford, Massachusetts. Wolfgang Menzel, 60, of Germany joined BCT Technology AG in 2000 as director of human resources. He is survived by his wife and one child. Menzel had planned to retire in six months. Shawn Nassaney, 25, was from Pawtucket, Rhode Island. Patrick Quigley, 40, of Wellesley, Massachusetts, was a partner at PriceWaterhouse Cooper. Frederick Rimmele was a physician from Marblehead, Massachusetts. James M. Roux, 42, was from Portland, Maine. Jesus Sanchez, 45, was an off-duty flight attendant from Hudson, Massachusetts. Kathleen Shearer was from Dover, New Hampshire. Robert Shearer was from Dover, New Hampshire. Jane Simpkin, 35, was from Wayland, Massachusetts. Brian D. Sweeney, 38, was from Barnstable, Massachusetts. Timothy Ward, 38, of San Diego, California, worked at the Carlsbad, California-based Rubio's Restaurants Inc. A 14-year veteran of the company, he opened its second restaurant in San Diego and most recently worked in the information technology department. William Weems of Marblehead, Massachusetts, was a commercial producer.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.
This is how I got that list of names of the passengers and crews of the four electronically hijacked planes. I went to the Internet Archive advances search page located here:
Then I pasted the old URL below from CNN into the search box along with dates in 2001 when I knew the link was active. When the archive gave the old web page, I clicked on the links after having copied it.